AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
Macular Degeneration (MD) is the name given to a group of degenerative retinal eye diseases that cause progressive loss of central vision, leaving the peripheral (or side) vision intact.
Macular Degeneration is the most common form of blindness in people over 60 and is usually related to ageing but with early detection and the best treatment, loss of vision does not need to be inevitable.
Marginal blepharitis is chronic inflammation of the edges (margins) of the eyelids. It is a common condition.
The eyelids contain special glands called sebaceous glands, which produce oily secretions. These secretions form an important part of the tear film. In blepharitis, these glands often become overactive and produce too much of these oily secretions, which become thick and turbid. This reduces the quality of the tears, which in turn, irritates the eyes. Scaly secretions form on the edges of the eyelids. Sometimes bacteria grow on these causing even more inflammation.
The lens of the eye is normally transparent. If a cloudy area develops in the lens, it is called a cataract.
When the amount of light that passes through the lens is reduced and scattered by the cataract, images are not focused properly on the retina at the back of the eye. The result is that vision becomes increasingly poor.
CHALAZION OR MEIBOMIAN CYST
Meibomian glands help to lubricate the eyelids. If the gland becomes blocked, it may swell up and cause a painless lump.
Imagine that your eye is like a camera and the retina is the film. The retina is a fine sheet of nerve tissue lining the inside of the eye. Rays of light enter the eye and are focused on the retina by the lens. The retina produces a picture, which is sent along the optic nerve for the brain to interpret.
This is the most common cause of blindness in the 20 to 65 year old age group in the Western World. In some people, diabetes can have a damaging effect on the blood vessels that nourish the eye's light-sensitive nerve layer at the back of the eye (the retina). Such damage is permanent, cumulative and may result in blindness if not controlled.
While tears are important, as they are required to keep the eye moist and healthy, some people suffer from too many tears, and their eyes are constantly watery. Epiphora is an abnormal overflow of tears from the eyes caused by an irritant to the eye, such as sawdust or an allergy, or a blockage somewhere in the lacrimal drainage system of the eye.